Nuevo Manual Único de Cadena de Custodia de Evidencias Físicas 2017

Acta: Narrativa escrita con indicación de las circunstancias de modo, tiempo y lugar, de actividades relacionadas con la investigación de un hecho presuntamente punible. Actividad: Conjunto de tareas realizadas por los operarios responsables de la gestión del “Sistema de Cadena de Custodia de Evidencias Físicas”.

Cadáver: Cuerpo sin signos vitales.

Ciencias Forenses: Conjunto de ciencias y disciplinas científicas destinadas al auxilio del sistema de justicia, mediante la aplicación de conocimientos, métodos y técnicas que contribuyen al esclarecimiento técnico científico del hecho presuntamente delictivo.

Criminalista: Licenciado en criminalística, que desempeña actividades forenses.

Técnico Criminalista: Técnico Superior Universitario con formación criminalística, que desempeña actividades forenses.

Auxiliar Criminalista: Persona con capacitación en materia criminalística, abocado al auxilio del criminalísta y del técnico criminalísta en el ejercicio de sus funciones.

Criminalística: Es la ciencia forense de carácter multidisciplinario, encargada de la investigación técnico científica del hecho presuntamente delictivo, a través de las evidencias físicas e interpretación integral del hecho, en auxilio al sistema de justicia.

Conway, J. V.P. (2002). Evidencias documentales. Buenos Aires- Argentina: Ediciones La Rocca.

 

ÍNDICE GENERAL

 

 

Introducción                                                                                                                                                            7

Prefacio                                                                                                                                                                   11

Nota de la traductora                                                                                                                                              20

 

 

CONCIENCIA DOCUMENTAL

                                                                                                                                                                                21

 

FIRMAS PROBATORIAS

 

                                                                                                                                                                                33

1. Firmas calcadas                                                                                                                                                   39

2. Firmas simuladas                                                                                                                                                 45

3. Simples falsificaciones                                                                                                                                        51

4. La identificación dela escritura                                                                                                                           54

 

 

LA ESCRITURA TIPOGRÁFICA

Y LA NUMÉRICA

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                85

Números                                                                                                                                                                  96

 

INVESTIGACIONES ESCRITURALE

(La búsquedad de ejemplares)

 

 

1. Preservación de evidencias escriturales                                                                                                               103

2. Consideraciones preliminares                                                                                                                              105

3. Clases de ejemplares patrones                                                                                                                             107

4. Fuentes de ejemplares informales                                                                                                                       112

a)      Documentos personales                                                                                                                               112

b)      Documentos educacionales                                                                                                                         112

c)      Documentos vocacionales                                                                                                                           112

d)     Documentos financieros                                                                                                                              113

e)      Documentos sociales, fraternales, de recreación                                                                                         113

f)       Documentos corporativos                                                                                                                            113

g)      Documentos de vehículos y motores                                                                                                          113

h)      Documentos militares                                                                                                                                              114

i)        Registros público y gubernamentales                                                                                                                      114

j)        Documentos penales                                                                                                                                   114

k)      Misceláneas de documentos                                                                                                                        114

5. Verificación de ejemplares                                                                                                                                  115

6. Variaciones en ejemplares                                                                                                                                   118

7. El demandante falso                                                                                                                                                       121

8. Consideraciones relevantes en la clasificación de falsificaciones                                                                       129

9. La sospecha de falsificación                                                                                                                               133

10. Escritos externos                                                                                                                                               141

11. Ejemplares patrones modelo                                                                                                                             143

 

 

ESCRITURA TIPOGRÁFICA

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                144

1. Examen preliminar de un escrito dactilografiado                                                                                               150

2. Diseños de letras características                                                                                                                          155

3. Desalineaciones                                                                                                                                                   159

4. Perpendicularidad                                                                                                                                               161

5. Características notorias                                                                                                                                       163

6. Defectos de los dactilotipos                                                                                                                                            165

7. Problemas de tiempos de ejecución                                                                                                                                166

8. Sustituciones                                                                                                                                                       170

9. Ejemplares (patrones)                                                                                                                                          172

 

CARTAS ANÓNIMAS

 

                                                                                                                                                                                181

 

GRAFOLOGÍA

 

                                                                                                                                                                                195

 

MATERIALES PARA ESCRIBIR

 

                                                                                                                                                                                202

1. Bolígrafos                                                                                                                                                            202

2. El lápiz de grafito líquido                                                                                                                                   212

3. Tintas de escribir                                                                                                                                                 214

4. Tintas simpáticas                                                                                                                                                 221

5. Papel                                                                                                                                                                   224

 

 

MISCELÁNEAS DE PROBLEMAS

DOCUMENTALES

 

1. Obliteraciones, borrados, alteraciones, marcas                                                                                                    237

2. Cruzamiento de trazos                                                                                                                                        248

3. Documentos carbonizados y embebidos                                                                                                             250

4. Escritura con mano izquierda                                                                                                                              255

 

 

EL EXPERTO EN DOCUMENTOS

 

                                                                                                                                                                                260

 

EL TESTIMONIO DEL EXPERTO

EN DOCUMENTOS

 

                                                                                                                                                                                293

 

Bibliografía                                                                                                                                                             319

Bonilla, C. E. (2000). Investigación documentológica. Buenos Aires-Argentina: Ediciones La Rocca.

 

ÍNDICE GENERAL

 

Capítulo Primero

INTRODUCCIÓN A LA DOCUMENTOLOGÍA

 

 

1. Generalidades                                                                                                                                                     17

2. Concepto de ciencia                                                                                                                                            20

3. Metodología de trabajo                                                                                                                                       21

4. Identidad humana                                                                                                                                               23

5. Un poco de historia                                                                                                                                                         27

6. El caso Dreyfus                                                                                                                                                   33

 

                                                    

Capítulo II

EL PAPEL

 

1. Generalidades                                                                                                                                                     37

2. Materias primas                                                                                                                                                   38

a)      Fibras de lino                                                                                                                                               38

b)      Fibras de cáñamo                                                                                                                                        39

c)      Fibras de algodón                                                                                                                                        39

d)     Celulosa                                                                                                                                                       40

e)      Almidón                                                                                                                                                      41

f)       Madera                                                                                                                                                        42

g)      Residuos                                                                                                                                                      43

1. Bagazo                                                                                                                                                     44

2. Paja de trigo                                                                                                                                            44

3. “Linter”                                                                                                                                                   44

4. Otros                                                                                                                                                        44

h)      Pasta mecánica                                                                                                                                            44

i)        Pasta química                                                                                                                                              46

3. La fabricación                                                                                                                                                     50

a)      Desmenuzado                                                                                                                                              50

b)      Batido, refinación y depuración                                                                                                                  50

c)      Formación de la hoja                                                                                                                                   51

d)      Prensado                                                                                                                                                     51

e)      Secado                                                                                                                                                         51

f)       Satinado                                                                                                                                                      52

g)      Bobinado rebobinado                                                                                                                                              52

4.Tipos de papel                                                                                                                                                      52

a)      Papel biblia                                                                                                                                                  52

b)      Papel base carbónico                                                                                                                                   54

c)      Papel “tissue”                                                                                                                                              54

d)     Papel “manifold”                                                                                                                                         54

e)      Papel calco                                                                                                                                                  54

f)       Papel manteca                                                                                                                                                         54

g)      Papel pergamino vegetal                                                                                                                             54

h)      Papel para diarios                                                                                                                                        55

i)        Papel obra                                                                                                                                                    55

j)        Papel obra de segunda                                                                                                                                            55

k)      Papel “offset”                                                                                                                                              55

l)        Papel rotograbado                                                                                                                                       55

m)    Papel afiche                                                                                                                                                 55

n)      Papel tapa                                                                                                                                                    56

ñ)   Papel símil manila                                                                                                                                        56

o)   Papel ilustración                                                                                                                                          56

p)   Papel símil ilustración                                                                                                                                  56

q)   Papel “kraft”                                                                                                                                                56

r)   Papel de embalaje                                                                                                                                        56

s)   Papel sulfito                                                                                                                                                 57

t)   Papel para cigarrillos                                                                                                                                    57

5. Gramaje                                                                                                                                                               57

6. Resistencia                                                                                                                                                          58

7. Otras determinaciones sobre el papel                                                                                                                  58

8. Análisis químico del papel                                                                                                                                  59

9. Análisis de las fibras                                                                                                                                                       63

 

 

Capítulo III

LAS TINTAS

 

1. Generalidades                                                                                                                                                     67

2. Antigüedad en las tintas                                                                                                                                     69

3. Tintas al campeche                                                                                                                                              69

4. Nigrosina                                                                                                                                                             70

5. Tintas a la anilina                                                                                                                                                 71

6. Tintas alcalinas                                                                                                                                                    72

7. El pH                                                                                                                                                                   72

8. Tintas especiales                                                                                                                                                  74

9. Estudio sobre las escrituras secretas                                                                                                                                75

10. Elementos escritores. Tintas empleadas                                                                                                            77

11. Sistema de impresión. Tintas empleadas                                                                                                           82

a)      Máquinas de escribir                                                                                                                                   82

b)      Sellos                                                                                                                                                           83

c)      Tipografía                                                                                                                                                    84

d)     Litografía                                                                                                                                                    85

e)      “Offset”                                                                                                                                                      86

f)       Flexografía                                                                                                                                                  86

g)      Serigrafía                                                                                                                                                     86

h)      Xerografía                                                                                                                                                   87

i)        Papel carbónico                                                                                                                                           88

 

 

Capítulo IV

LA ESCRITURA

 

 

1. Generalidades                                                                                                                                               91

2. El aprendizaje                                                                                                                                                93

3. Patrimonio exclusivo del hombre                                                                                                                  93

4. Un medio de comunicación                                                                                                                          94

5. Enfermedades en la escritura                                                                                                                        95

6. Personalidad del falsificador                                                                                                                        100

 

Capítulo V

CUESTIONES PERICIALES

GRAFOLOGÍA. CASOS

 

 

1. El perito                                                                                                                                                               103

2. El informe pericial                                                                                                                                               105

a)      Preámbulo                                                                                                                                                   105

b)      Exposición                                                                                                                                                   105

c)      Discusión                                                                                                                                                     105

d)     Conclusiones                                                                                                                                               106

3. Personalidad del perito                                                                                                                                       106

4. Recaudación y excusación de los peritos. Conceptos generales                                                                         107

5. La pericial documentológica                                                                                                                                           110

6. Autenticidad                                                                                                                                                                   111

7. Documento genuino                                                                                                                                                        111

8. Principios de la documentación auténtica                                                                                                           112

9. El cuerpo de escritura                                                                                                                                          113

10. Documento sospechado o dubitado                                                                                                                  113

11. Vocablos más utilizados                                                                                                                                    115

12. El mundo pericial actual                                                                                                                                    116

13. Grafología                                                                                                                                                                     118

 

 

Capítulo VI

FALSIFICACIONES. INSTRUMENTOS PÚBLICOS

Y PRIVADOS. JURISPRUDENCIA

 

1. Comentario al artículo 292 del Código Penal                                                                                                     125

2. El perjuicio                                                                                                                                                          126

3. Instrumento público o privado                                                                                                                            126

4. Documentos de identidad                                                                                                                                   127

5. Código Penal de la Nación Argentina                                                                                                                127

6. Jurisprudencia                                                                                                                                                     128

a)      Falsificación de firma                                                                                                                                              128

b)      Falsedad ideológica                                                                                                                                     149

c)      Adulteración de cheques                                                                                                                             152

d)     Adulteración de documentos                                                                                                                                  155

e)      Falsificación de fotocopia                                                                                                                           161

f)       Imitación de firma                                                                                                                                       161

g)      Falsificación de cheque                                                                                                                               163

h)      Falsificación de documentos y títulos de crédito                                                                                        187

i)        Falsificación de documentos de identidad                                                                                                 188

 

Capítulo VII

SOPORTES. ELEMENTOS ESCRITORES

TINTAS. CROMATOGRAFÍA

 

 

 

1.Análisis del soporte                                                                                                                                              195

2. Elementos escritores                                                                                                                                            199

a)      Lápices                                                                                                                                                        199

1.Clasificación de los lápices                                                                                                                       200

2.Análisis físicos de las escrituras a lápiz                                                                                                    201

3.Análisis químicos de los escrituras a lápiz                                                                                                202

4.Conclusiones                                                                                                                                                        205

b)      Los bolígrafos                                                                                                                                                         205

Conclusiones                                                                                                                                               208

c)      Las fibras                                                                                                                                                     209

Conclusiones                                                                                                                                               210

3. Cromatografía                                                                                                                                                     210

            El Rf                                                                                                                                                            215

4. Las tintas                                                                                                                                                             216

a)      Estudio analítico de las tintas. Análisis de laboratorio                                                                                           216

b)      Análisis físicos                                                                                                                                                        217

c)      Estudio sobre la luz y sus efectos                                                                                                                218

1.Dicroísmo                                                                                                                                                 219

2.Luminiscencia                                                                                                                                           219

3.Fluorescencia                                                                                                                                            220

d)     Metodología de trabajo                                                                                                                               220

e)      La antigüedad como factor de confrontación pericial                                                                                            223

f)       Comportamiento analítico de las tintas                                                                                                                   224

g)      Tintas ferrotánicas                                                                                                                                       225

Síntesis de referencias                                                                                                                                             229

 

 

Capítulo VIII

ESTUDIO CALIGRÁFICO

 

 

1. Introducción                                                                                                                                                                    235

2. Análisis de la escritura                                                                                                                                        241

3. Elementos de la escritura                                                                                                                                    246

a)      Forma y dimensión                                                                                                                                      248

b)      Dirección                                                                                                                                                     249

c)      Enlaces                                                                                                                                                        250

d)     Inclinación                                                                                                                                                   251

e)      Presión                                                                                                                                                         252

f)       Velocidad                                                                                                                                                    253

g)      Proporcionalidad                                                                                                                                         255

h)      Orden                                                                                                                                                          255

4. Las superposiciones                                                                                                                                                         256

5. El doblado del papel                                                                                                                                            261

6. Borrados                                                                                                                                                              265

a)      Medios físicos                                                                                                                                                         266

Metodología de trabajo                                                                                                                               267

Conclusiones                                                                                                                                               269

b)      Métodos químicos                                                                                                                                       270

Metodología del trabajo                                                                                                                              274

Conclusiones                                                                                                                                               275

7. Tachados                                                                                                                                                             277

8. Relieve en el reverso                                                                                                                                           278

9. Falsificaciones                                                                                                                                                     278

a)      Falsificación por componentes propios                                                                                                       279

b)      Falsificación por copiado o calcado                                                                                                            279

c)      Falsificación por imitación                                                                                                                          280

d)     Falsificación mediante la utilización de recortes                                                                                         280

e)      Falsificación por imitación con práctica reiterada                                                                                       281

f)       Falsificación a mano guiada                                                                                                                        282

10. Firmas                                                                                                                                                                282

11. Detenciones, retoques y perfilados                                                                                                                               285

12. El cuerpo de escritura                                                                                                                                        287

 

 

Capítulo IX

LA PERICIAL MECANOGRÁFICA

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                289

1. El paso mecánico. Personalidad de la máquina                                                                                                   290

2. La unidad básica o el paso proporcional                                                                                                             291

3. Máquinas a esfera                                                                                                                                                292

4. Máquinas electrónicas                                                                                                                                         293

5. Tiempo de ejecución                                                                                                                                           294

6. Estudio de la máquina de escribir                                                                                                                       296

7. Distintos tiempos de escrituras                                                                                                                           299

8. La identidad del dactilógrafo                                                                                                                             300

9. Metodología de trabajo                                                                                                                                       301

 

 

Capítulo X

ADHESIVOS. SELLOS DE GOMA. FOTOCOPIAS

FALSIFICACIÓN DE DOCUMENTOS DE IDENTIDAD

Y DE BILLETES

 

 

1. Adhesivos                                                                                                                                                           303

a)      Clasificación                                                                                                                                                304

b)      Aplicación                                                                                                                                                   305

c)      Identificación de adhesivos vegetales                                                                                                                    307

d)     Estudios sobre adhesivos sintéticos                                                                                                            308

e)      Metodología de trabajo                                                                                                                               309

1.Técnicas empleando luz ultravioleta                                                                                                                     310

2.Determinación del pH                                                                                                                              310

2. Sellos de goma                                                                                                                                                    311

            Metodología de trabajo                                                                                                                               314

3. Fotocopias                                                                                                                                                           315

            Metodología de trabajo                                                                                                                               316

4. Adulteración y falsificación de documentos de identidad                                                                                             317

5. Falsificación de billetes                                                                                                                                       318

 

Bibliografía                                                                                                                                                             319

 

ÍNDICE GENERAL

 

Introducción                                                                                                                                                            19

Consideraciones Generales                                                                                                                                     23

 

Capítulo Primero

HISTORIA DE LA ESCRITURA Y SU EVOLUCION EN EL TIEMPO

 

                                                                                                                                                                          25

1. Concepto de escritura                                                                                                                                   27

            a) Sistemas incompletos                                                                                                                              29

            b) Sistemas completos                                                                                                                                             29

            c) Sistemas ideográficos                                                                                                                              30

            d) Sistemas pictográficos                                                                                                                            31

            e) Sistemas silábicos                                                                                                                                    31

            f) Sistemas alfabéticos                                                                                                                                             33

                1. Alfabeto fenicio                                                                                                                                  34

                2. Alfabeto árabe                                                                                                                                     34

                3. Alfabeto griego                                                                                                                                   34

                4. Alfabeto latino                                                                                                                                    36

    5. Alfabeto cirílico                                                                                                                                   37

    6. Alfabeto copto                                                                                                                                    37

    7. Runas                                                                                                                                                   37

    8. Alfabetos actuales                                                                                                                               39

      2. Escritura cuneiforme                                                                                                                                     42

               Procedimientos iniciales de las inscripciones cuneiformes                                                                                   44

      3. Escritura demótica                                                                                                                                        46

      4. Escritura hierática (jeroglíficos)                                                                                                                                47

a) Ideogramas y fonogramas                                                                                                                       47

            b) Disposición de las escrituras jeroglíficas                                                                                                 49

            c) Desarrollo de las formas cursivas                                                                                                            50

            d) Descubrimiento del significado de los jeroglíficos                                                                                             52

            e) Escritura china                                                                                                                                         53

            f) Letra gótica                                                                                                                                              54

 

 

Capítulo II

INSTRUMENTOS ANTIGUOS DE ESCRITURA Y SU EVOLUCION

 

                                                                                                                                                                          57

1. Plumas                                                                                                                                                           58

2. El bolígrafo                                                                                                                                                   59

3. Rotuladores                                                                                                                                                   60

4. El lápiz                                                                                                                                                          60

5. Máquinas de escribir                                                                                                                                     61

            a) La máquina de escribir Remington                                                                                                                      62

            b) Máquinas de escribir eléctricas                                                                                                                64

      6. Desarrollos recientes                                                                                                                                     65

 

Capítulo III

DIVERSOS SOPORTES A TRAVES DE LA HISTORIA

 

                                                                                                                                                                          67

1. Piedra                                                                                                                                                            67

2. Arcilla                                                                                                                                                            67

3. Tabletas                                                                                                                                                               68

4. Tablillas enceradas                                                                                                                                        68

5. Metal                                                                                                                                                             68

6. Quipus                                                                                                                                                           68

7. Papel                                                                                                                                                              69

            a) Papiro                                                                                                                                                      69

      b) Pergamino y vitela                                                                                                                                   70

      c) Fabricación manual del papel                                                                                                                  71

      d) Fabricación mecánica del papel                                                                                                              73

 

 

Capítulo IV

TINTAS PARA ESCRITURA

 

                                                                                                                                                                          79

1. Tintas para imprenta                                                                                                                                      80

2. Tintas para multicopistas                                                                                                                               80

3. Tintas para fines especiales                                                                                                                            81

 

Capítulo V

TIPOS DE IMPRENTA

 

                                                                                                                                                                          83

1. Historia y diseño de tipos                                                                                                                             84

2. Evolución del diseño de tipos                                                                                                                       85

3. Tipos modernos                                                                                                                                                   89

       Tipógrafos de la segunda mitad del siglo xx                                                                                                    91

4. Diseño actual de los tipos                                                                                                                             95

5. Técnicas de impresión                                                                                                                                   96

      a) Litografía                                                                                                                                                 97

      b) “Offset”                                                                                                                                                  98

      c) Impresión en relieve                                                                                                                                      98

      d) Tipografía                                                                                                                                                99

      e) Planchas de copia                                                                                                                                    99

      f) Planchas de fotopolímeros                                                                                                                       100

      g) Impresión Flexográfica                                                                                                                           100

      h) Grabado                                                                                                                                                  101

      i)  Serigrafía                                                                                                                                                 101

      j) Procesos de impresión electrónica                                                                                                            102

      k) Impresión electrofotográfica                                                                                                                         103

      l) Impresión por chorro de tinta                                                                                                                   103

      m)Impresión por microcápsulas                                                                                                                   104

      n) Impresión por sublimación térmica y transferencia de ceras                                                                         104

 

 

Capítulo VI

DECEPCIONES Y EXPECTATIVAS

 

1. Primeras decepciones profesionales                                                                                                              105

2. Expectativas y situación futura                                                                                                                           107

 

 

Capítulo VII

FALSIFICACIÓN DE DOCUMENTOS

 

1. Delitos de falsificación                                                                                                                                       111

2. Tipos de documentos                                                                                                                                    112

 

 

Capítulo VIII

LA PERICIA EN LOS CÓDIGOS

PROCESALES DE LA NACIÓN

 

                                                                                                                                                                          117

1. Código Procesal Penal                                                                                                                                   117

2. Código Procesal Civil y Comercial                                                                                                               118

 

 

Capítulo IX

CALÍGRAFOS PÚBLICOS

 

1. Reglamentación de la carrera de calígrafo público                                                                                       119

2. Funciones y competencia de los calígrafos públicos                                                                                     125

 

Capítulo X

CARRERA Y PROFESIÓN

 

1. Cursado de la carrera                                                                                                                                    131

2. Comienzo de la profesión                                                                                                                             132

      a) Trámites iniciales                                                                                                                                     133

      b) Recepción de la primeras cédulas                                                                                                           134

      c) Ingreso al juzgado                                                                                                                                   135

      d) Adelanto de gastos                                                                                                                                       137

      e) Solicitud de cuerpos de escritura                                                  1                                                         138

      f) Presentación de la pericia e impugnación                                                                                                139

      g) Honorarios                                                                                                                                               141

      h) Pericias sin cuerpos de escritura                                                                                                              146

 

Capítulo XI

INFORMES O DICTÁMENES PERICIALES

 

                                                                                                                                                                          149

1. Encabezado                                                                                                                                                   150

2. Circunstancias y datos personales del profesional                                                                                        151
3. Objeto de pericia                                                                                                                                           152

4. Elementos indubitados                                                                                                                                        153

      a) Originales                                                                                                                                                154

      b) Espontáneos                                                                                                                                            154

      c) Hechos en condiciones normales                                                                                                             155

      d) Coetáneos                                                                                                                                               155

      e) Extensos                                                                                                                                                  155

      f) Numerosos                                                                                                                                               156

5. Elementos dubitados                                                                                                                                     159

6. Cotejo o estudio técnico pericial                                                                                                                   160